Huan Truong

Notes from a developer


Accessing a firewalled computer/Raspberry Pi with Wireguard and OpenWRT, the easy way

Suppose you have a computer or Raspberry Pi named Alice behind a school/corp firewall. You have a router running OpenWRT called Bob at home you can open ports. You wish to to access remotely from home. Suppose, like me, you're a n00b in networking and routing stuff and routing lingos confuse you. You know how to set up your home network, you can probably do some port forwarding and Dynamic DNS.

I have a computer behind a campus firewall that I want to connect to from my home. I can always VPN in using Cisco VPN, but I don't like having to open the VPN client and figure out how to not route all my traffic through the campus VPN (I guess I can do it on Linux with enough dedication, I can't easily make it happen on my Windows/Mac clients). Normally, I do the reverse-SSH/autossh kinda thing to reverse-open a port on the home router. However, there are two shortcomings with reverse-SSH. First, it doesn't route UDP and I have to be explicit about ports I want to forward. Second, it's a pain to set up. Services such as makes it zero-configuration, but it's a proxying service so it's slow.

You need to use Wireguard like me. Wireguard solves all of those elegantly and it's very performant. Plus it's integrated with systemd so you have easy startup configuration. It's really quite magical and just works.

So, let's get down to it.

Install Wireguard on router Bob

Get OpenWRT latest stable version (don't get the dev version) - currently it's still named LEDE now, it hasn't released a version after the name change to OpenWRT. Install luci-app-wireguard and luci-proto-wireguard.

Install Wireguard on computer Alice

On Alice, install Wireguard by whatever mean that you need to. On most Linux system it's just a couple of commands just like the page says.

If Alice is a Raspberry Pi, then do the following:

  1. Go to The Wireguard Install page, then look at the section Debian (module, tools).
  2. Click on the Module link. Download the "all" arch package to the Pi. Install dkms and raspberrypi-kernel-headers. Then dpkg -i the wireguard-dkms deb file you just downloaded.
  3. Click on the Tools link. Download the "armel" arch package to the Pi (armel, not armhf - the Raspberry Pi's CPU doesn't have some of the features of the armhf arch in Debian, if you download and install the armhf package, it will crash).

Now we have to make a "fake" armhf wireguard-tools package from the armel package. They are just userland tools, it doesn't matter if they are a bit less performant.

$ mkdir wireguard-tools-repack

$ cd wireguard-tools-repack

$ ar x ../wireguard-tools_blah_armel.deb

$ vim control.tar.xz # Yeah you see it correctly :) 

Edit the control file so it says: 
Architecture: armhf
instead of 
Architecture: armel

$ ar r ../wireguard-tools_blah_armel.deb control.tar.xz

Then dpkg -i the repacked deb file. Now dpkg won't complain no more.

Generate key pairs

Now generate two keypairs for the computer and the router. Do it on the computer Alice.

$ wg genkey | tee alice_key.priv | wg pubkey | tee
$ wg genkey | tee bob_key.priv | wg pubkey | tee

Note that from now when I say alice_key.priv, it always means pasting whatever that is in alice_key.priv, not the filename.

Configure router Bob

Go to the router's Luci interface:

  1. Network -> Interfaces -> Add new interfaces -> Protocol -> WireGuard VPN, name it wg0. Next.
  2. "General Setup" tab: Common Configuration -> Private key: bob_key.priv. Listen Port 4500. IP Addresses: (not your LAN subnet).
  3. Peers -> Pubkey -> Pub key: Allowed IPs: – and whatever IPs you want to access pass through Alice (as if Alice was your VPN provider. For example, like something else inside its firewalled network. Check "Route Allowed IPs."
  4. "Firewall Settings" tab: Assign firewall-zone: WAN.
  5. Remember to port-forward port 4500/UDP on Bob to the router itself.

We use port 4500 to disguise the traffic as Cisco VPN - most firewalls allow outgoing UDP connections to that port.

Done for the router. Restart it. Watch what it does on Status > Wireguard.

Configure the computer Alice

$ sudo vim /etc/wireguard/wg0.conf

Type in:

Address =
ListenPort = 58601
PrivateKey = alice_key.priv

PublicKey =
AllowedIPs =
Endpoint =
PersistentKeepalive = 25

Try it:

$ wg-quick up wg0

See if it works:

$ sudo wg

If you're happy:

$ wg-quick down wg0

$ sudo systemctl enable wg-quick@wg0

Now your computer Alice, it will appear as if it's not firewalled on You can add as many peers as you want on the router's peers section. Just repeat the steps on the Alice computer and give it a new IP. All of the wireguard peers can share the same wg0 interface on the router.

Isn't that sweet?